Saturday, March 24, 2012

Teaching Teachnique Overview

Teaching Techniques Overview

Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages
There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have had their heyday, others are widely used now. These are explanations for some common foreign language teaching techniques that you may recognize from your own teaching experience.

The Grammar Translation Method
The grammar translation method instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary with direct translations to memorize.  It was the predominant method in Europe in the 19th century. Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself.
The Audio-Lingual Method
The audio-lingual method (ALM) arose as a direct result of the need for foreign language proficiency in listening and speaking skills during and after World War II. The audio-lingual method has students listen to or view tapes of language models acting in situations. Students practice with a variety of drills, and the instructor emphasizes the use of the target language at all times.
The Direct/Natural Method
The direct or natural method is a method that refrains from using the learners’ native language and just uses the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. The direct method operates on the idea that second language learning must be an imitation of first language learning, as this is the natural way humans learn any language – a child never relies on another language to learn its first language, thus the mother tongue is not necessary to learn a foreign language.
The National – Functional Syllabus
The national functional syllabus is more a way of organizing a language learning curriculum than an approach to teaching. In a notional-functional syllabus, instruction is organized not in terms of grammatical structure but in terms of “notions” and “functions”. That is, the “notion” is the context of the communication and the “function” is the purpose for the speaker. For example, if the “notion” is shopping the “functions” could include; asking

about prices or features of a product or bargaining.
The Communicative Approach
The Communicative Approach (communicative language teaching or CLT) emphasizes interaction as both the means and goal of learning a language. It is particularly popular in Europe, where constructivist views on language learning and education in general dominate academic discourse.
Language Immersion
Language immersion puts students in a situation where they must use a foreign language, whether or not they know it. This creates fluency, but not accuracy of usage. French language immersion programs are common in Canada in the state school system as part of a drive towards bilingualism.
Directed Practice
Directed practice has students repeat phrases. This method is used by U.S. diplomatic courses. It can quickly provide phrase book-type knowledge of the language. Within these limits, the student’s usage is accurate and precise. However, the student’s choice of what to say is not flexible.
Learning by Teaching
Learning by teaching is a widespread method in Germany. The students take the teacher’s role and teach their peers.

Source by Kim Leadbeater 


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